Python Scopes and Their Built-in Functions

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Python’s subject is comprehensive, and its scope is wide. It is the operation of the object in python and to get any variable in a python code, a scope is defined. You cannot access it directly. One can only use them with the variables.

The scope of python is the visible code or the visible variables. These variables can have restricted visibility and they are selective as well. You cannot see the whole code in python. Their visibility is the scope of the code which is a set of rules. These rules will define the visibility of the variable and how it will be searched. Why would a variable be searched? It is to retrieve or value or assign a value to a variable.

Identification of the variable or the method is done by namespace. It is a unique identifier that can ask a python interpreter about an object’s name and its location. It can also tell the area of accessibility.  

Scope resolution is given with the help of namespaces. According to LEGB or Local, Enclosed, Global, Built-in rules these can help to acknowledge the resolution along with the sequencing. You will have to search the variable in the local and follow it through the LEGB rule. 

Python Scope & Its Types

There are 4 scopes in python- LEGB or the Local, Enclosed, Global, and Built-in. We will explore variable declaration and access its scope here.

  • Local Scope

Variables in the function or defined function variables are of the local scope. As the name suggests, these are the functions of bodies. We are going to give an example where a variable Num is equal to 0. This is outside the function and hence is not a local variable. All the variables that are inside the functions are only defined as a local variable and hence num = 1 is a local variable. It is declared and given inside the function variable. You can run this code to get the following output- Number= 1

For Code-


def demo():



    print(“The Number is:”,num)


Here the local function (num) is used in the function. If it is used before the Local declaration, it will have an error.

  • Global Scope 

Global, as the name suggests, runs globally. That means the code’s variable can run from anywhere and through any program. It has a global scope and can be accessed inside as well as outside the function. In the local function, we couldn’t access the outside variables but in Global, we can. When an operator can use one variable in all its programs, it is known as global. 

Let’s take an example where any variable “Tsr” is an outside function. The value of the “Tsr” is printed and you will not require any global keyword to use the global variable. 

Let’s look at the following code-

def demo():


# Global  

Tsr = “I am good”


The output is ‘I am very good’

You can tell the python interpreter to have a global variable and use the keyword Global along with it. It can modify and access the new variable. You have to declare a variable as Global else the variable will be treated as local. This is especially true when you create or modify the same function in the local and do not use the word Global.

  • Enclosing Scope 

Have you heard about nested functions? This is when the enclosing or the nonlocal variable comes in. It gives the benefit of both the local and global scope. You have to use the keyword nonlocal to make the variable a non-local variable. Let’s take an example where you are creating an out-of-function and nested inner () function. You can define the inner function in the outside one and can change non-local variables in the inner one. After changing the same, the result will be seen in the outer function. 

Let’s take an example in the following code-

def func_outer():

    y = “local”

    def func_inner():

        nonlocal y

        y = “nonlocal”

        print(“inner:”, y)


    print(“outer:”, y)


You will have the output of the inner as well as the outer as nonlocal.

  • Built-in scope

Some variables cannot be fetched in the local, global or enclosed school. This is when the python interpreter will look for the built-in scope. Let’s take a mathematical example of the importation of root 2. The value of root 2 is not given in the global, local, and closed variables. It will look into the built-in scope and later give its value. You cannot use the same name given in the built-in to be used in the identifier. Let’s take an example from the following code-

# Built-in Scope 

from maths import root 2 

# root 2 = ‘Not defined in global root 2’

def func_outer(): 

    # root 2 = ‘Not defined in outer root 2’ 

    def inner(): 

        # root 2 = ‘not defined in inner root 2’ 

        print(root 2) 



You will get the following output as the value of root 2-1.414213562373.


The python variable scope can be studied with the help of Knowledgehut python programming language certification. As we learned about the four types of scope named local, enclosed, built-in, and global scope we also learned about the keywords like nonlocal and global. We hope you got the gist of the python variable scope and how it is useful.


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